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15.00 – 17.00
1945 年 7 月，在第二次世界大战结束之际、阿帕网（APARNET，被视为现代互联网的前身）问世之前，一篇名为《诚如所思（As We May Think）》的文章发表于《大西洋（The Atlantic）》杂志。该文章作者范内瓦·布什（Vannevar Bush）为彼时美国国防部科研委员会（NDRC）主席兼科学研究与发展办公室（OSRD）主任。布什在该文章中描绘了一种假想的可调节微缩胶片观看器，称为“拓忆机（memex）”，即一种用于人类记忆深度拓展的补充，一个机械化的私人文件归档与图书馆。
布什的拓忆机理念及其对未来远景的思量影响了几代科学家与工程师，这些人后来奠定了现代信息技术的基础，如约瑟夫·利克莱德（J.C.R. Licklider）和道格拉斯·恩格尔巴特（Douglas Engelbart）。其中最著名的人物之一是超链接（Hypertext）和超媒体（Hypermedia）之父泰德·尼尔森（Ted Nelson），他在计算机领域备受争议。尼尔森在 1960 创建了首个超链接项目，其目标是创建一个全球性的电子发表、无政府主义和民粹主义系统，任何人都可以发表任何内容，并可以被任何人阅读。他称其为“世外桃源（Xanadu，亦称‘上都计划 – Xanadu Project’）”，该词源于忽必烈（Kublai Khan）的避暑行宫之地（元上都），之后被用于富丽与丰饶的隐喻（世外桃源）。尼尔森梦想着他的项目会成为人类记忆与知识的圣殿。
这个尝试最终失败了，因为蒂姆·伯纳斯·李（Tim Berners Lee）先发制人，击败了尼尔森。为了嘲笑尼尔森之败，连线杂志（WIRED）甚至在 1995 年发表了一篇名为《上都的诅咒（The Curse of Xanadu）》的文章，称该计划是计算机工业历史上运行时间最长的雾件（vapourware）故事。然而，随着如今的互联网暴露出越来越多的问题，人们开始回看计算机的早期时代，在先行者身上寻找灵感。我们可以从先驱身上学到什么？互联网从一开始就应该是什么样？该讲座将讲述现代互联网被遗忘的历史，并揭示计算机背后范式的谎言；以此，我们可以更好地理解真正的互联网。
美国伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳香槟分校环境科学硕士，法学博士；其论文方向包括刑诉、信息技术法和创业法，曾有多篇论文发表于 Hong Kong Law Review，the China Review 等知名 SSCI 期刊。她从2016年起进入区块链行业，目前担任信息科技初创公司 Dimension 作为合规负责人以及台湾尚澄律师事务所的顾问，并因作为996开源协议的起草人接受了 CCTV、经济观察报、南华早报、连线、路透社等国内外多家知名媒体的采访。
|CAC Presents||Computer Lib & Dream Machine, From Memex and Hypertext to Modern Internet|
GU Zihui (Katt)
15.00 – 17.00
Chronus Art Center
Building No.18, No.50 Moganshan Rd, Shanghai
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In July 1945, as World War II was nearing its end and long before the invention of APARNET (known as the precursor to the modern Internet), an article, entitled “As We May Think,” was published in The Atlantic magazine. The author was Vannevar Bush, then chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) and director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD). In this article, Bush described a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer called a “memex”—a “mechanized private file archive and library” that will serve as “an enlarged intimate supplement to his [human] memory.”
Bush’s idea of memex and his vision of the future influenced generations of scientists and engineers who later laid the foundation of modern information technology, including J. C. R. Licklider and Douglas Engelbart. One of the most notable figures is the father of Hypertext and Hypermedia, Ted Nelson, a somewhat controversial figure in the computing world. Nelson founded the first hypertext project in 1960, with the aim to create “a world-wide system of electronic publishing, anarchic and populist, where anyone could publish anything, and anyone could read it.” He called it Xanadu, for the summer capital of Kublai Khan which later became a synonym for splendour and opulence. Ted Nelson dreamed that his project would become a holy temple of human memory and knowledge.
This attempt ultimately failed because Tim Berners Lee beat Nelson to the punch. Mocking Nelson’s failure, WIRED magazine even published an article titled “The Curse of Xanadu” in 1995, and describing it as “the longest-running vaporware story in the history of the computer industry.” However, as today’s Internet is increasingly fraught with problems, people have begun to return to the early days of computing, to seek inspiration from the Internet’s precursors. What we can learn from these pioneers, and what did they intend for the Internet from the beginning? This talk will narrate the forgotten history of the modern Internet and reveal the lies behind computer paradigms, to offer a better understanding of the true Internet.
About the Speaker
Katt(Zihui) Gu is currently a Ph.D. student at University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (on-leave) and also served as the Chief Compliance Officer at Shanghai-based high-tech startup Dimension. She has acquired a Master’s degree in Natural Resource and Environmental Science and a Juris Doctor Degree from University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, focusing on standardization of biofuel sustainability certification and probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear energy. Her current research direction is in the intersection of law and information science, and she has published several papers on Hong Kong Law Review, Asian Pacific Law Review, China Review and other well-known SSCI journals. She was also known as the drafter of Anti-996 license and was been interviewed by BBC, Wired, New York Times, CCTV and many other mainstream media.